"Effect of preheat temperature and post-process treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of stainless steel 410 made via ultrasonic additive manufacturing'' appeared in Materials Science and Engineering A
Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state manufacturing technology for producing near-net shape metallic parts combining additive ultrasonic metal welding and subtractive machining. Even though UAM has been demonstrated to produce robust metal builds in Al–Al, Al–Ti, Al-steel, Cu–Cu, Al–Cu, and other material systems, UAM welding of high strength steels has proven challenging. This study investigates process and post-processing methods to improve UAM steel weld quality and demonstrates the UAM fabrication of stainless steel 410 (SS 410) builds which possess, after post-processing, mechanical properties comparable with bulk material. Unlike UAM fabrication of softer metals, this study shows that increasing the baseplate temperature from 38°C (100°F) to 204°C (400°F) improves interfacial strength and structural homogeneity of the UAM steel samples. Further improvement in strength is achieved through post-processing. The hot isostatic pressing (HIP) post treatment improves the shear strength of UAM samples to 344 MPa from 154 MPa for as-welded samples. Microstructural analyses with SEM and EBSD show no evidence of body centered cubic (BCC) ferrite to face centered cubic (FCC) austenite transformation taking place during UAM welding of SS 410. The weld quality improvement of UAM steel at higher baseplate temperatures is believed to be caused by the reduction of the yield strength of SS 410 at elevated temperature. HIP treatment is shown to increase the overall hardness of UAM SS 410 from 204 ± 7 HV to 240 ± 16 HV due to the formation of local pockets of martensite. Nanohardness tests show that the top of layer n is harder than the bottom of layer n+1 due to grain boundary strengthening.
T. HAN, C.-H. Kuo, N. Sridharan, L.M. Headings, S.S. Babu, and M.J. Dapino, "Effect of preheat temperature and post-process treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of stainless steel 410 made via ultrasonic additive manufacturing,'' Materials Science and Engineering A, 769, 138457, 2020.